Parution : Carmen Fracchia, “Black but Human : Slavery and Visual Art in Hapsburg Spain”, 1480-1700″, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2023
‘Black but Human’ is the first study to focus on the visual representations of African slaves and ex-slaves in Spain during the Hapsburg dynasty. The Afro-Hispanic proverb ‘Black but Human’ is the main thread of the six chapters and serves as a lens through which to explore the ways in which a certain visual representation of slavery both embodies and reproduces hegemonic visions of enslaved and liberated Africans, and at the same time provides material for critical and emancipatory practices by Afro-Hispanics themselves.
The African presence in the Iberian Peninsula between the late fifteenth century and the end of the seventeenth century was as a result of the institutionalization of the local and transatlantic slave trades. In addition to the Moors, Berbers, and Turks born as slaves, there were approximately two million enslaved people in the kingdoms of Castile, Aragón, and Portugal. The ‘Black but Human’ topos that emerges from the African work songs and poems written by Afro-Hispanics encodes the multi-layered processes through which a black emancipatory subject emerges and a ‘black nation’ forges a collective resistance. It is visually articulated by Afro-Hispanic and Spanish artists in religious paintings and in the genres of self-portraiture and portraiture. This extraordinary imagery coexists with the stereotypical representations of African slaves and ex-slaves by Spanish sculptors, engravers, jewellers, and painters mainly in the religious visual form and by European draftsmen and miniaturists, in their landscape drawings, and sketches for costume books.
The first book about the visual representations of African slaves and ex-slaves in Spain during the Hapsburg dynasty, when the enslaved population reached two million. Offers a new approach to the problematization of depictions of Afro-Hispanics slaves and ex-slaves. Creates a new and selected visual archive of the representations of Afro-Hispanic slaves and ex-slaves, showing that this imagery both embodies and reproduces hegemonic visions of Afro-Hispanic slaves and ex-slaves. Provides material for critical and emancipatory practices by Afro-Hispanic slaves and ex-slaves themselves. Constructs an account of the material culture of slavery based on archival sources.
1:’Black but Human’
2:What Is Human About Slavery?
3:Visual Culture and Slavery
4:Props and Costume
5:Commodification: ‘Is There Any Caste Lower Than Blacks and Slaves From Guinea?’
6:The Image of Freedom: ‘All Souls Are Of A Single Colour and They Are Wrought In The Same Workshop’